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  • Psychotic  disorder

(PD) is a disorder characterized by movement abnormalities caused by degeneration  of the neurons  in substantia nigra . The prevalence of major depression in patient with PD is estimated to be 40 percent , with prevalence rates of 40-70 percent . The anxiety syndromes in PD are apparently related to an underlying brain disease, with evidence implicating noradrenergic dysfunction . In several studies, anxiety syndromes developed before or after the onset of motor system .

The clinicsl manifestations of stage of hepatics encephalopathy are listed below

  • Stage 1 .
  • .  Apathy
  • .  Restlessness 
  • . impaired cognition
  • . impaired handwriting
  • . Reversal of sleep rhythm
  • Stage 2
  • . Lethargy
  • . Drowsiness
  • . Disorientation
  • . Asterixis
  • . Beginning  of mood swing
  • Stage 3
  • . Arousable stupor
  • . hyperactive reflexes
  • . Short episodes of psychiatric symptoms 
  • Symptoms of psychotic disorder
  • Positive symptoms :

Positive symptoms are delusions, hallucinations, bizarre behaviors, and thought

broadcasting where the individual believes others can supernaturally influence his or her

thoughts or vice versa.

  •  Negative symptoms

Negative symptoms refer to a reduction or loss of normal functions such as restriction

and flattening of emotions, severely reduced speech or thought, and lack of interest in

goal-directed activities. A delusion is a firm belief that others cannot verify.

The delusional individual clings to the belief despite evidence to the contrary. A common

type of delusion involves thoughts of persecution such as being spied upon or conspired

against. There may also be delusions of grandeur where individuals believe they have

extraordinary powers, are on a special mission, or think they are someone important

such as Jesus Christ. The delusion is termed bizarre if it is not based on ordinary life

experiences. An example is of aliens controlling an individual’s body and / or thoughts.

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  • Types of Psychotic Disorders
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  • There are four types of psychotic disorder

1) Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia is probably the one that most people are familiar with because it is seen

most commonly in society and in the clinical setting. Schizophrenia is characterised as

being a psychotic disorder that has to last for at least 6 months and include two or more

of active phase symptoms (i.e. hallucinations or delusions) for at least 1 month.

2) Schizophreniforn disorder

Schizophreniform Disorder is very similar to Schizophrenia except that it lasts from 1 to

6 months and also there ‘t have to be a decline in functioning

.

3) Schizoaffective disorder

Schizoaffective Disorder is characterized by an individual having a mood episode and

the active phase symptoms of Schizophrenia at the same time. Also there must have

been at least 2 weeks of delusions or hallucinations (without mood symptoms) before

or after the occurrence of them together.

4) Delusional disorder

An individual with Delusional Disorder must have had at least 1 month of non-bizarre

symptoms without any other active phase symptoms. Brief Psychotic Disorder must

last more than 1 day and goes away by 1 month. An individual with Shared Psychotic

Disorder has delusions that have been

  • Causes of Psychotic Disorder

The cause of the symptoms helps to determine whether or not the sufferer is described

as having brief psychotic disorder. If the psychotic symptoms appear as a result of a

physical disease, a reaction to medication, or intoxication with drugs or alcohol, then

the unusual behaviors are not classified as brief psychotic disorder.

  • Functional Causes

Functional causes of psychosis include the following:

 brain tumors

 drug abuse amphetamines, cocaine, marijuana, alcohol among others

 brain damage

 schizophrenia, schizophreniform disorder, schizoaffective disorder, brief psychotic

disorder

 bipolar disorder (manic depression)

 severe clinical depression

 severe psychosocial stress

 sleep deprivation

 some focal epileptic disorders especially if the temporal lobe is affected

 exposure to some traumatic event (violent death, etc.)

 abrupt or over-rapid withdrawal from certain recreational or prescribed drugs

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