What is crowd ?
Crowd is a physically compact organization of human beings brought into direct,
temporary and unorganized contact with one another. If some people stand together
for a short time at any place, then it may be called crowd. The crowd is the most
transitory and unstable of all the social groups. Actually crowd exhibits no patterns,
no characteristic expressions. The collection of human beings in the market or in
the open space is also designated as crowd.
- Crowd behavior involves three aspects:
i) psychological continuity
ii) polarization of interest and attention and
iii) transition and temporary character.
- Crowd can be divided into two classes:
Active crowd can be further classified into four classes:
- Aggressive crowd:
It is a crowd of people in an aggressive and destructive
frame of mind, capable of any and every act of destruction and irrationality,
brutality and inhumanity. This kind of crowd exhibits a tremendous excitement.
- Panicky crowd:
Panicky crowd is the panicky or fear-stricken crowd whose
constituent members are almost crazed with fear to a point where they can no
longer think and find reason. They are almost frightened out of their units, so that
thinking is for the time being a think beyond their power.
- Acquisitive crowd:
The aim and objective of each of its members is to obtain
or acquire something. Acquisitive crowd is composed almost entirely of
individuals whose objectives is to gain or obtain something, be it a cinema ticket,
kerosene oil etc.
- Expressive crowd:
In this kind of crowd some people gathered to give
expression or to manifest their demands or sentiments. Desire of violence is
relatively less pronounced and dominant in the members of an expressive crowd.
- No crowd is completely inactive. The difference between an active and inactive
- crowd is only relative. The inactive crowd even resembles an audience.
- You may join in a crowd, where you can find some special characteristics:
- Crowd has no predetermined aim.
- There is no definite time and place for crowd.
- It is a congregate group of individuals who have temporarily identified themselves
- with common interest.
- It seems that members are motivated by emotions and soon become
- The behavior of crowd is not certain.
- People within the crowd stimulate each other.
- Members of the crowd are generally uncontrolled, unorganized and disordered.
- Members are motivated by emotions and soon become uncontrollable.
- The curiosity, values and emotions are temporarily identical and which arises
- because of common interest.
- CROWD BEHAVIOUR :
Neither the socio-psychological processes that take place within the crowd nor
the techniques employed by the crowd, lead to understanding of crowd behavior.
However the leader provides an adequate understanding of the peculiarities of
crowd behavior. Some of them are as given below:
l In the crowd, with the loss of individuality, a form of group consciousness
develops a fusion of mind with mind, a sympathetic participation on emotional
level which is common to all the participants. Appeals, slogans are the common
Crowd behavior is the release of repressed drives. We may think of the crowd as a temporary collectivity within which thwarted
impulses are afforded an outlet. The close connection between the underlying
characteristics of the cultural conditions and the types of crowd those are apt to
mark the community life.