- What is language disorder?
Language is the rule-based use of speech sounds to communicate
. Language disorders or language impairments involve the processing of
linguistic information. Problems that may be experienced can involve grammar
, or other aspects of language. Disordered language may be due to a receptive problem, that is, a difficulty in understanding speech sounds. It can also be due to an expressive problem, that is, a difficulty in producing the speech sounds, that follow the arbitrary rules
of a specific language. A language disorder can also be due to problems in both
reception and expression. Examples include specific language impairment and
aphasia, among others. Language disorders can affect both spoken and written
language, and can also affect sign language; typically, all forms of language will
The use of speech sounds in combinations and patterns that fail to follow the
arbitrary rules of a particular language is a language disorder. For instance, the
lack of communication etiquette is considered a language disorder. Talking out
of turn, not talking when it is your turn, or not responding when you are expected
to could be disorders if frequently observed in one’s language behavior.
Language disorder is a disorder that is found in the development or use of the
knowledge of language. It shows the breakdown in the development of language
abilities on the usual developmental schedule. The disorders that come under
language disorders are: Autism, Learning Disability, Specific Language
Impairment, Developmental Phonological Disorders Aphasia, Dyspraxia, etc.
We shall discuss the most common language disorders in detail
- Language disorder developed phonological disorder like Aphasia, Autism, Dyslexia, Dyspraxia.
Aphasia is an impairment of language functioning caused by damage to the left
hemisphere of the brain There are different type of aphasias, example; Boca’s aphasia and Wernicke’s aphasia Wernicke’s aphasia is caused by damage to the left temporal lobe of the brain. It is characterized by notable impairment in the understanding of spoken words
and sentences. People with Wernicke’s aphasia have generally fluent phonetic
and syntactic but semantically coherent speech. This coherence is exhibited through the creation of nonsense words for real-world concepts and improper substitutions of function words for content words. It also typically involves the production of sentences that
Autism is a developmental disorder characterized by abnormalities in social
behavior, language, and cognition . is biological in
its origins, although the genes responsible for it have not been conclusively
identified .Children with autism are identified by around 14
months of age, when they fail to show expected normal patterns of interaction
with others. They display repetitive movements and stereotyped patterns of
interests and activities. When they interact with someone, they are more likely to
view their lips than their eyes. About half of children with autism fail to develop
functional speech. The speech they tend to develop is characterized by echolalia,
meaning they repeat, over and over again, speech they have heard. Sometimes
the repetition occurs several hours after the original use of the words by someone
Dyslexia has been around for a long time and has been defined in
different ways. For example, in 1968, the World Federation of Neurologists
defined dyslexia as “a disorder in children who, despite conventional classroom
experience, fail to attain the language skills of reading, writing, and spelling
commensurate with their intellectual abilities.” Dyslexia is not due to mental
retardation, brain damage, or a lack of intelligence.
- Language Impairment
Specific language impairment is a developmental language disorder in the
absence of frank neurological, sensorimotor, nonverbal cognitive or social
emotional deficits. SLI is used to refer to problems in the
acquisition and use of language, typically in the context of normal development.
Children with SLI lag behind their peers in language production and language
comprehension, which contributes to learning and reading disabilities in school.
One of the hallmarks of SLI is a delay or deficit in the use of function morphemes
and other grammatical morphology .