BORDERLINE PERSONALITY DISORDER
Borderline Personality disorders, which were formerly referred to as character disorders, are a class of personality types and behaviors that the American Psychiatric Association defines as “an enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior that deviates markedly from the expectations of the culture of the individual who exhibits it.
Personality disorders are noted on Axis II the Diagnostic of Statistical and Manual-
of the American Psychological Association. According to Borderline Personality disorder is enduring subjective experiences and behavior that deviates from cultural standards, are rigidly pervasive, have an onset in adolescence or early adulthood, are stable through time, and lead to unhappiness and impairment. So the onset of these patterns of behavior can typically be traced back to late adolescence and the beginning of adulthood and, in rarer instances, childhood. It is therefore unlikely that a diagnosis of personality disorder will be appropriate before the age of 16 or 17
. These maladaptive approaches usually significantly impair at least some aspects of functioning and in some cases cause a good deal of subjective distress. For example, people
with avoidant personality disorder are so shy and hypersensitive to rejection that they actively avoid most social interaction.
- Borderline personality disorder:
Borderline personalities are characterized by unstable interpersonal relationships, behavior, mood, and self-image. They are prone to sudden and extreme mood
changes, stormy relationships, unpredictable and often self-destructive behavior.
These personalities have great difficulty with their own sense of identity and
often experience the world in extremes, viewing experiences and others as
either “black” or “white.” They often form intense personal attachments only to
quickly dissolve them over a perceived offense
- Paranoid personality disorder :
disorder is characterized by irrational suspicions and mistrust of others. Personality
characteristics may be ‘active’, resulting in hostility, quarrels, litigation, and even
violence or destructive behavior on occasions, or ‘passive’, with the individual
facing the world from a position of submission and humiliation. Person suffering
from paranoid personality disorder believes that others dislike him and will do
him down but is not able to do much about it.
- Schizoid personality disorder:
This disorder is characterized by lack of interest in social relationships, seeing no point in sharing time with others, anhedonia, introspection. Schizoid personalities are introverted, withdrawn, solitary, emotionally cold, and distant. Often absorbed with their own thoughts and feelings, they fear closeness and intimacy with others. People
suffering from schizoid personality disorder tend to be more daydreamers than
practical action takers, often living “in a world of their own
- Schizotypal personality disorder:
This is characterized by odd behavior or thinking. Schizotypal personalities tend to
have odd or eccentric manners of speaking or dressing. They often have
strange, outlandish, or paranoid beliefs and thoughts. People with Schizotypal
personality disorders have difficulties bonding with others and experience
extreme anxiety in social situations. They tend to react inappropriately or not
react at all during a conversation, or they may talk to themselves
- Symptoms of Borderline Personality Disorder
Symptoms vary widely depending on the specific type of personality disorder, but
according to the American Psychiatric Association, individuals with personality
disorders have most of the following symptoms in common:
- Self-centeredness that manifests itself through a “me-first,” self-preoccupied
- Lack of individual accountability that result in a “victim mentality” and blaming
- others for their problems.
- Lack of empathy and caring.
- Manipulative and exploitative behavior.
- Unhappiness, suffering from depression, and other mood and anxiety disorders.
- Vulnerability to other mental disorders
- Causes of Borderline Personality Disorder
Although there is no specific cause for borderline personality disorder, like most
other mental disorders, it is understood to be the result of a combination of biological
vulnerabilities, ways of thinking, and social stressors. An overview of the existing
literature suggested that traits related to borderline personality disorder are influenced by genes A major twin study found that if one identical twin met
criteria for borderline personality disorder, the other also met criteria in 35% of
cases. People that have borderline personality disorder influenced by genes usually have a close relative with the disorder .
One psychosocial influence that has received great deal of attention is the possible contribution of childhood trauma, especially sexual and physical abuse. Numerous studies have shown a strong correlation between child abuse, especially child sexual\abuse and development of borderline personality disorder
. Many individuals with borderline personality disorder report to have had a history of abuse and neglect as young children.
- Treatment of Borderline Personality Disorder
Treatments for borderline personality disorder have improved in recent years. Group and individual psychotherapy are at least partially effective for many patients. behavior therapy was developed specifically to treat borderline personality disorder, and this technique has looked promising in treatment studies .Within the past 15 years, a new psychosocial treatment termed dialectical Dialectical behavior therapy is an approach to psychotherapy in which the therapist specifically addresses four areas that tend to be particularly problematic for individuals with borderline personality disorder: self-image, impulsive behaviors, mood instability and problems in relating to others. , To address those areas, treatment with dialectical behavior therapy tries to build four major behavioral skill areas: mindfulness, distress tolerance, emotional regulation, and interpersonal effectiveness. Talk therapy that focuses on helping the person understand how their thoughts and behaviors affect each other has also been
found to be effective treatment for borderline personality disorder.
dividable patient. which seeks to help the individual understand and better manage his or her ways of defending against negative emotions, has been found to be effective in addressing borderline personality disorder, especially when the therapist is more active or vocal than in traditional psychoanalytic treatment and when this approach is used in the context of current rather than past relationships. Pharmacological treatments are often prescribed based on specific target symptoms.